Erome

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Erome

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He funded the building of several churches and allowed clergy to act as arbitrators in civil suits a measure that did not outlast him but which was restored in part much later.

He transformed the town of Byzantium into his new residence, which however, was not officially anything more than an imperial residence like Milan or Trier or Nicomedia until given a city prefect in May by Constantius II; Constantinople.

Christianity in the form of the Nicene Creed became the official religion of the empire in , via the Edict of Thessalonica issued in the name of three emperors — Gratian, Valentinian II, and Theodosius I — with Theodosius clearly the driving force behind it.

He was the last emperor of a unified empire: after his death in , his sons, Arcadius and Honorius divided the empire into a western and an eastern part.

During the 5th century, the emperors from the s mostly resided in the capital city, Rome. Rome, which had lost its central role in the administration of the empire, was sacked in by the Visigoths led by Alaric I , [44] but very little physical damage was done, most of which was repaired.

What could not be so easily replaced were portable items such as art work in precious metals and items for domestic use loot. The popes embellished the city with large basilicas, such as Santa Maria Maggiore with the collaboration of the emperors.

The population of the city had fallen from , to —, by the time the city was sacked in by Genseric , king of the Vandals. Even so, strenuous efforts were made to maintain the monumental centre, the palatine, and the largest baths, which continued to function until the Gothic siege of The large baths of Constantine on the Quirinale were even repaired in ; and the extent of the damage exaggerated and dramatised.

Population declined to , by and , by AD perhaps larger, though no certain figure can be known. After the Gothic siege of , population dropped to 30,, but had risen to 90, by the papacy of Gregory the Great.

Subsidized state grain distributions to the poorer members of society continued right through the sixth century and probably prevented the population from falling further.

The Bishop of Rome, called the Pope , was important since the early days of Christianity because of the martyrdom of both the apostles Peter and Paul there.

The Bishops of Rome were also seen and still are seen by Catholics as the successors of Peter, who is considered the first Bishop of Rome. The city thus became of increasing importance as the centre of the Catholic Church.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in AD, Rome was first under the control of Odoacer and then became part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom before returning to East Roman control after the Gothic War , which devastated the city in and Its population declined from more than a million in AD to , in [50] to 35, after the Gothic War — , [51] reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins, vegetation, vineyards and market gardens.

After the Lombard invasion of Italy , the city remained nominally Byzantine, but in reality the popes pursued a policy of equilibrium between the Byzantines , the Franks , and the Lombards.

In , Muslim Arabs unsuccessfully stormed the city's walls , but managed to loot St. Peter 's and St. Paul's basilica, both outside the city wall.

During this period, the city was autonomously ruled by a senatore or patrizio. In the 12th century, this administration, like other European cities, evolved into the commune , a new form of social organisation controlled by the new wealthy classes.

In this period, the papacy played a role of secular importance in Western Europe , often acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs and exercising additional political powers.

In , Charles of Anjou , who was heading south to fight the Hohenstaufen on behalf of the pope, was appointed Senator. Charles founded the Sapienza , the university of Rome.

This angered the people of the city, who then unroofed the building where they met, and imprisoned them until they had nominated the new pope; this marked the birth of the conclave.

Pope Boniface VIII , born Caetani, was the last pope to fight for the church's universal domain ; he proclaimed a crusade against the Colonna family and, in , called for the first Jubilee of Christianity , which brought millions of pilgrims to Rome.

In , Rome became the seat of the papacy again under Gregory XI. During those years, the centre of the Italian Renaissance moved to Rome from Florence.

Majestic works, as the new Saint Peter's Basilica , the Sistine Chapel and Ponte Sisto the first bridge to be built across the Tiber since antiquity, although on Roman foundations were created.

To accomplish that, the popes engaged the best artists of the time, including Michelangelo , Perugino , Raphael , Ghirlandaio , Luca Signorelli , Botticelli , and Cosimo Rosselli.

The period was also infamous for papal corruption, with many popes fathering children, and engaging in nepotism and simony. The corruption of the popes and the huge expenses for their building projects led, in part, to the Reformation and, in turn, the Counter-Reformation.

Under extravagant and rich popes, Rome was transformed into a centre of art, poetry, music, literature, education and culture. Rome became able to compete with other major European cities of the time in terms of wealth, grandeur, the arts, learning and architecture.

In this twenty-year period, Rome became one of the greatest centres of art in the world. The old St. Peter's Basilica built by Emperor Constantine the Great [62] which by then was in a dilapidated state was demolished and a new one begun.

The city hosted artists like Ghirlandaio , Perugino , Botticelli and Bramante , who built the temple of San Pietro in Montorio and planned a great project to renovate the Vatican.

Raphael, who in Rome became one of the most famous painters of Italy, created frescoes in the Villa Farnesina , the Raphael's Rooms , plus many other famous paintings.

Michelangelo started the decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and executed the famous statue of the Moses for the tomb of Julius II.

Its economy was rich, with the presence of several Tuscan bankers, including Agostino Chigi , who was a friend of Raphael and a patron of arts.

Before his early death, Raphael also promoted for the first time the preservation of the ancient ruins. The War of the League of Cognac caused the first plunder of the city in more than five hundred years since the previous sack ; in , the Landsknechts of Emperor Charles V sacked the city , bringing an abrupt end to the golden age of the Renaissance in Rome.

Beginning with the Council of Trent in , the Church began the Counter-Reformation in response to the Reformation, a large-scale questioning of the Church's authority on spiritual matters and governmental affairs.

This loss of confidence led to major shifts of power away from the Church. This was another nepotistic age; the new aristocratic families Barberini , Pamphili , Chigi , Rospigliosi , Altieri , Odescalchi were protected by their respective popes, who built huge baroque buildings for their relatives.

There were setbacks in the attempts to assert the Church's power, a notable example being in when Pope Clement XIV was forced by secular powers to have the Jesuit order suppressed.

The rule of the Popes was interrupted by the short-lived Roman Republic — , which was built under the influence of the French Revolution.

After the fall of Napoleon, the Papal States were reconstituted by a decision of the Congress of Vienna of In , a second Roman Republic was proclaimed during a year of revolutions in Two of the most influential figures of the Italian unification , Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi , fought for the short-lived republic.

Rome then became the focus of hopes of Italian reunification after the rest of Italy was united as the Kingdom of Italy in with the temporary capital in Florence.

That year Rome was declared capital of Italy even though it was still under the Pope's control. French troops were stationed in the region under Papal control.

Italian troops were able to capture Rome entering the city through a breach near Porta Pia. Pope Pius IX declared himself a prisoner in the Vatican.

In the capital of Italy was moved from Florence to Rome. A significant portion lived outside the walls in the north and across the Tiber in the Vatican area.

He did away with democracy by , eventually declaring a new Italian Empire and allying Italy with Nazi Germany in Mussolini demolished fairly large parts of the city center in order to build wide avenues and squares which were supposed to celebrate the fascist regime and the resurgence and glorification of classical Rome.

During World War II, due to the art treasuries and the presence of the Vatican, Rome largely escaped the tragic destiny of other European cities.

However, on 19 July the San Lorenzo district was bombed by Anglo-American forces , resulting in about 3, immediate deaths and 11, wounded of whom another 1, died.

Mussolini was arrested on 25 July. On the date of the Italian Armistice 8 September the city was occupied by the Germans. The Pope declared Rome an open city.

It was liberated on 4 June Rome developed greatly after the war as part of the " Italian economic miracle " of post-war reconstruction and modernisation in the s and early s.

The rising trend in population growth continued until the mids, when the comune had more than 2. After this, the population declined slowly as people began to move to nearby suburbs.

The EUR initial designation E 42 is a residential and business area southwest of the city center. The region was originally selected in the s as the venue of the World Fair, which Benito Mussolini planned to open to celebrate 20 years of fascism.

The EUR was also designed to direct the expansion of the city to the southwest and the sea and to become a new urban centre in Rome. The final design was presented in but due to the Second World War the exhibition never happened and the works stopped in After the war, the unfinished facilities of the EUR were severely damaged.

However, the authorities of Rome decided that the EUR could be the start of an urban business centre, and the unfinished buildings from the fascist era were completed in the s and s.

Newer buildings were also built for the use of offices and governmental services, amid large gardens and parks. Rome constitutes a comune speciale , named "Roma Capitale" , [66] and is the largest both in terms of land area and population among the 8, comuni of Italy.

It is governed by a mayor and a city council. The seat of the comune is the Palazzo Senatorio on the Capitoline Hill , the historic seat of the city government.

The local administration in Rome is commonly referred to as "Campidoglio" , the Italian name of the hill.

Since , the city has been divided into administrative areas, called municipi sing. Each municipio is governed by a president and a council of twenty-five members who are elected by its residents every five years.

The municipi frequently cross the boundaries of the traditional, non-administrative divisions of the city.

The municipi were originally 20, then 19, [68] and in , their number was reduced to Rome is also divided into differing types of non-administrative units.

The historic centre is divided into 22 rioni , all of which are located within the Aurelian Walls except Prati and Borgo.

These originate from the 14 regions of Augustan Rome , which evolved in the Middle Ages into the medieval rioni.

A new subdivision of the city under Napoleon was ephemeral, and there were no serious changes in the organisation of the city until , when Rome became the third capital of Italy.

The needs of the new capital led to an explosion both in the urbanisation and in the population within and outside the Aurelian walls.

In , a fifteenth rione, Esquilino , was created on the newly urbanised zone of Monti. Afterward, for the new administrative subdivisions of the city, the term "quartiere" was used.

Today all the rioni are part of the first Municipio, which therefore coincides completely with the historical city Centro Storico. Rome is the principal town of the Metropolitan City of Rome , operative since 1 January The Metropolitan City replaced the old provincia di Roma , which included the city's metropolitan area and extends further north until Civitavecchia.

The Metropolitan City of Rome is the largest by area in Italy. Moreover, the city is also the capital of the Lazio region.

Rome is the national capital of Italy and is the seat of the Italian Government. The official residences of the President of the Italian Republic and the Italian Prime Minister , the seats of both houses of the Italian Parliament and that of the Italian Constitutional Court are located in the historic centre.

The state ministries are spread out around the city; these include the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is located in Palazzo della Farnesina near the Olympic stadium.

The original settlement developed on hills that faced onto a ford beside the Tiber Island , the only natural ford of the river in this area.

Modern Rome is also crossed by another river, the Aniene , which flows into the Tiber north of the historic centre.

Throughout the history of Rome, the urban limits of the city were considered to be the area within the city's walls.

Originally, these consisted of the Servian Wall , which was built twelve years after the Gaulish sack of the city in BC. This contained most of the Esquiline and Caelian hills, as well as the whole of the other five.

Rome outgrew the Servian Wall, but no more walls were constructed until almost years later, when, in AD, Emperor Aurelian began building the Aurelian Walls.

The comune covers an area roughly three times the total area within the Raccordo and is comparable in area to the entire metropolitan cities of Milan and Naples , and to an area six times the size of the territory of these cities.

It also includes considerable areas of abandoned marsh land which is suitable neither for agriculture nor for urban development. As a consequence, the density of the comune is not that high, its territory being divided between highly urbanised areas and areas designated as parks, nature reserves , and for agricultural use.

Rome has a Mediterranean climate Köppen climate classification : Csa , [73] with hot, dry summers and mild, humid winters. In the coldest month, January, the average temperature is In the warmest month, August, the average temperature is Snowfall is rare but not unheard of, with light snow or flurries occurring on some winters, generally without accumulation, and major snowfalls on a very rare occurrence the most recent ones were in , and Sea temperatures vary from a low of Other sources suggest the population was just under , from — BC.

The republic included the city itself and the immediate surroundings. Other sources suggest a population of , in BC.

It surpassed , in BC. The size of the city at the time of the Emperor Augustus is a matter of speculation, with estimates based on grain distribution, grain imports, aqueduct capacity, city limits, population density, census reports, and assumptions about the number of unreported women, children and slaves providing a very wide range.

Glenn Storey estimates , people, Whitney Oates estimates 1. Jones estimated the population at , in the mid-fifth century. The damage caused by the sackings may have been overestimated.

The population had already started to decline from the late fourth century onward, although around the middle of the fifth century it seems that Rome continued to be the most populous city of the two parts of the Empire.

After the Gothic Wars, —, the population may have dwindled temporarily to 30, During the pontificate of Pope Gregory I — , it may have reached 90,, augmented by refugees.

This has been used to suggest a population of just under , Supplies of grain remained steady until the seizure of the remaining provinces of North Africa in by the Vandals , and may have continued to some degree afterwards for a while.

The city's population declined to less than 50, people in the Dark Ages from AD onward. It continued to stagnate or shrink until the Renaissance.

When the Kingdom of Italy annexed Rome in , the city had a population of about , Less than half the city within the walls was built up in when the population recorded was , This increased to , by the eve of World War I.

The Fascist regime of Mussolini tried to block an excessive demographic rise of the city, but failed to prevent it from reaching one million people by the early s.

A construction boom also created many suburbs during the s and s. In mid, there were 2,, residents in the city proper, while some 4.

Minors children ages 18 and younger totalled This compares with the Italian average of The average age of a Roman resident is 43 compared to the Italian average of In the five years between and , the population of Rome grew by 6.

The urban area of Rome extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 3. About half of the immigrant population consists of those of various other European origins chiefly Romanian, Polish, Ukrainian, and Albanian numbering a combined total of , or 4.

The remaining 4. The Esquilino rione , off Termini Railway Station , has evolved into a largely immigrant neighbourhood.

It is perceived as Rome's Chinatown. Immigrants from more than a hundred different countries reside there. A commercial district, Esquilino contains restaurants featuring many kinds of international cuisine.

There are wholesale clothes shops. Of the 1, or so commercial premises operating in the district are Chinese-owned; around are run by immigrants from other countries around the world; are owned by Italians.

Much like the rest of Italy, Rome is predominantly Christian , and the city has been an important centre of religion and pilgrimage for centuries, the base of the ancient Roman religion with the pontifex maximus and later the seat of the Vatican and the pope.

Before the arrival of the Christians in Rome, the Religio Romana literally, the "Roman Religion" was the major religion of the city in classical antiquity.

The first gods held sacred by the Romans were Jupiter , the most high, and Mars , god of war, and father of Rome's twin founders, Romulus and Remus , according to tradition.

Other deities such as Vesta and Minerva were honoured. Rome was also the base of several mystery cults, such as Mithraism. Peter's Basilica was constructed in AD.

Despite some interruptions such as the Avignon papacy , Rome has for centuries been the home of the Roman Catholic Church and the Bishop of Rome , otherwise known as the Pope.

Despite the fact that Rome is home to the Vatican City and St. There are around churches in Rome in total.

There are also the ancient Catacombs of Rome underneath the city. In recent years, there has been growth in Rome's Muslim community, mainly due to immigration from North Africa and the Middle East into the city.

Since the end of the Roman Republic , Rome is also the centre of an important Jewish community, [] which was once based in Trastevere , and later in the Roman Ghetto.

There lies also the major synagogue in Rome, the Tempio Maggiore. Peter's Basilica , the Apostolic Palace , the Sistine Chapel , and museums were built, along with various other buildings.

The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until When the Lateran Treaty of that created the Vatican state was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory were influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop.

For some parts of the border there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part a new wall was constructed.

The territory includes Saint Peter's Square , separated from the territory of Italy only by a white line along the limit of the square, where it borders Piazza Pio XII.

This grand approach was designed by architects Piacentini and Spaccarelli, on the instructions of Benito Mussolini and in accordance with the church, after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty.

According to the Treaty, certain properties of the Holy See located in Italian territory, most notably the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas , enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies.

Rome has been a major Christian pilgrimage site since the Middle Ages. People from all over the Christian world visit Vatican City, within the city of Rome, the seat of the papacy.

The city became a major pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages. Apart from brief periods as an independent city during the Middle Ages , Rome kept its status as papal capital and holy city for centuries, even when the Papacy briefly relocated to Avignon — Catholics believe that the Vatican is the last resting place of St.

Pilgrimages to Rome can involve visits to many sites, both within Vatican City and in Italian territory. A popular stopping point is the Pilate's stairs : these are, according to the Christian tradition, the steps that led up to the praetorium of Pontius Pilate in Jerusalem , which Jesus Christ stood on during his Passion on his way to trial.

For centuries, the Scala Santa has attracted Christian pilgrims who wished to honour the Passion of Jesus. Other objects of pilgrimage include several catacombs built in imperial times, in which Christians prayed, buried their dead and performed worship during periods of persecution, and various national churches among them San Luigi dei francesi and Santa Maria dell'Anima , or churches associated with individual religious orders, such as the Jesuit Churches of Jesus and Sant'Ignazio.

Traditionally, pilgrims in Rome as well as devout Romans visit the seven pilgrim churches Italian : Le sette chiese in 24 hours.

This custom, mandatory for each pilgrim in the Middle Ages, was codified in the 16th century by Saint Philip Neri. Rome's architecture over the centuries has greatly developed, especially from the Classical and Imperial Roman styles to modern fascist architecture.

Rome was for a period one of the world's main epicentres of classical architecture , developing new forms such as the arch , the dome and the vault.

Originally capable of seating 60, spectators, it was used for gladiatorial combat. The medieval popular quarters of the city, situated mainly around the Capitol, were largely demolished between the end of the 19th century and the fascist period, but many notable buildings still remain.

Basilicas dating from Christian antiquity include Saint Mary Major and Saint Paul outside the Walls the latter largely rebuilt in the 19th century , both housing precious fourth century AD mosaics.

Notable later medieval mosaics and frescoes can be also found in the churches of Santa Maria in Trastevere , Santi Quattro Coronati , and Santa Prassede.

Secular buildings include a number of towers, the largest being the Torre delle Milizie and the Torre dei Conti , both next to the Roman Forum, and the huge outdoor stairway leading up to the basilica of Santa Maria in Aracoeli.

Rome was a major world centre of the Renaissance , second only to Florence, and was profoundly affected by the movement.

Among others, a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture in Rome is the Piazza del Campidoglio by Michelangelo. Many of the famous city's squares — some huge, majestic and often adorned with obelisks , some small and picturesque — took their present shape during the Renaissance and Baroque periods.

Other notable 17th-century baroque palaces are the Palazzo Madama , now the seat of the Italian Senate , and the Palazzo Montecitorio , now the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy.

In , Rome became the capital city of the new Kingdom of Italy. During this time, neoclassicism , a building style influenced by the architecture of antiquity , became the predominant influence in Roman architecture.

During this period, many great palaces in neoclassical styles were built to host ministries, embassies, and other government agencies. The Fascist regime that ruled in Italy between and had its showcase in Rome.

Mussolini ordered the construction of new roads and piazzas, resulting in the destruction of older roads, houses, churches and palaces erected during papal rule.

Architecturally, Italian Fascism favoured the most modern movements, such as Rationalism. Parallel to this, in the s another style emerged, named "Stile Novecento", characterised by its links with ancient Roman architecture.

This new quarter emerged as a compromise between Rationalist and Novecento architects, the former being led by Giuseppe Pagano.

The EUR was originally conceived for the world exhibition , and was called "E. The world exhibition never took place, because Italy entered the Second World War in , and the buildings were partly destroyed in in fighting between the Italian and German armies and later abandoned.

Also, the Palazzo della Farnesina , the current seat of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs , was designed in in pure Fascist style.

Public parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the city has one of the largest areas of green space among European capitals.

While most of the parks surrounding the villas were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, some of them remain. Villa Doria Pamphili is west of the Gianicolo hill, comprising some 1.

The Villa Sciarra is on the hill, with playgrounds for children and shaded walking areas. The old Roman hippodrome Circus Maximus is another large green space: it has few trees, but is overlooked by the Palatine and the Rose Garden 'roseto comunale'.

Nearby is the lush Villa Celimontana , close to the gardens surrounding the Baths of Caracalla. The Villa Borghese garden is the best known large green space in Rome, with famous art galleries among its shaded walks.

There is also a notable pine wood at Castelfusano , near Ostia. Rome also has a number of regional parks of much more recent origin, including the Pineto Regional Park and the Appian Way Regional Park.

There are also nature reserves at Marcigliana and at Tenuta di Castelporziano. Rome is a city famous for its numerous fountains, built in all different styles, from Classical and Medieval, to Baroque and Neoclassical.

The city has had fountains for more than two thousand years, and they have provided drinking water and decorated the piazzas of Rome.

During the Roman Empire , in 98 AD, according to Sextus Julius Frontinus , the Roman consul who was named curator aquarum or guardian of the water of the city, Rome had nine aqueducts which fed 39 monumental fountains and public basins, not counting the water supplied to the Imperial household, baths, and owners of private villas.

Each of the major fountains was connected to two different aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service. During the 17th and 18th century, the Roman popes reconstructed other ruined Roman aqueducts and built new display fountains to mark their termini, launching the golden age of the Roman fountain.

The fountains of Rome, like the paintings of Rubens , were expressions of the new style of Baroque art. They were crowded with allegorical figures, and filled with emotion and movement.

In these fountains, sculpture became the principal element, and the water was used simply to animate and decorate the sculptures. They, like baroque gardens, were "a visual representation of confidence and power".

Rome is well known for its statues but, in particular, the talking statues of Rome. These are usually ancient statues which have become popular soapboxes for political and social discussion, and places for people to often satirically voice their opinions.

There are two main talking statues: the Pasquino and the Marforio , yet there are four other noted ones: il Babuino , Madama Lucrezia , il Facchino and Abbot Luigi.

Most of these statues are ancient Roman or classical, and most of them also depict mythical gods, ancient people or legendary figures; il Pasquino represents Menelaus , Abbot Luigi is an unknown Roman magistrate, il Babuino is supposed to be Silenus , Marforio represents Oceanus , Madama Lucrezia is a bust of Isis , and il Facchino is the only non-Roman statue, created in , and not representing anyone in particular.

They are often, due to their status, covered with placards or graffiti expressing political ideas and points of view.

Other statues in the city, which are not related to the talking statues, include those of the Ponte Sant'Angelo, or several monuments scattered across the city, such as that to Giordano Bruno in the Campo de'Fiori.

The city hosts eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks , together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also formerly until an ancient Ethiopian obelisk in Rome.

Moreover, the centre of Rome hosts also Trajan 's and Antonine Column , two ancient Roman columns with spiral relief. The city of Rome contains numerous famous bridges which cross the Tiber.

The only bridge to remain unaltered until today from the classical age is Ponte dei Quattro Capi , which connects the Isola Tiberina with the left bank.

Considering Ponte Nomentano , also built during ancient Rome, which crosses the Aniene , currently there are five ancient Roman bridges still remaining in the city.

Most of the city's public bridges were built in Classical or Renaissance style, but also in Baroque, Neoclassical and Modern styles. Rome has extensive amount of ancient catacombs, or underground burial places under or near the city, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades.

Though most famous for Christian burials, they include pagan and Jewish burials, either in separate catacombs or mixed together.

The first large-scale catacombs were excavated from the 2nd century onwards. Originally they were carved through tuff , a soft volcanic rock , outside the boundaries of the city, because Roman law forbade burial places within city limits.

Currently, maintenance of the catacombs is in the hands of the Papacy which has invested in the Salesians of Don Bosco the supervision of the Catacombs of St.

Callixtus on the outskirts of Rome. As the capital of Italy, Rome hosts all the principal institutions of the nation, including the Presidency of the Republic, the government and its single Ministeri , the Parliament, the main judicial Courts, and the diplomatic representatives of all the countries for the states of Italy and Vatican City.

Many international institutions are located in Rome, notably cultural and scientific ones, such as the American Institute, the British School, the French Academy, the Scandinavian Institutes, and the German Archaeological Institute.

Although the economy of Rome is characterised by the absence of heavy industry and it is largely dominated by services , high-technology companies IT, aerospace, defence, telecommunications , research, construction and commercial activities especially banking , and the huge development of tourism are very dynamic and extremely important to its economy.

Rome's international airport, Fiumicino , is the largest in Italy, and the city hosts the head offices of the vast majority of the major Italian companies, as well as the headquarters of three of the world's largest companies: Enel , Eni , and Telecom Italia.

The city is also a centre for banking and insurance as well as electronics, energy, transport, and aerospace industries. Numerous international companies and agencies headquarters, government ministries, conference centres, sports venues, and museums are located in Rome's principal business districts: the Esposizione Universale Roma EUR ; the Torrino further south from the EUR ; the Magliana ; the Parco de' Medici-Laurentina and the so-called Tiburtina-valley along the ancient Via Tiburtina.

Rome is a nationwide and major international centre for higher education, containing numerous academies, colleges and universities. It boasts a large variety of academies and colleges, and has always been a major worldwide intellectual and educational centre, especially during Ancient Rome and the Renaissance , along with Florence.

Rome has many universities and colleges. Its first university, La Sapienza founded in , is one of the largest in the world, with more than , students attending; in it ranked as Europe's 33rd best university [] and in the Sapienza University of Rome ranked as the 62nd in the world and the top in Italy in its World University Rankings.

There are also many specialist libraries attached to various foreign cultural institutes in Rome, among them that of the American Academy in Rome , the French Academy in Rome and the Bibliotheca Hertziana — Max Planck Institute of Art History , a German library, often noted for excellence in the arts and sciences; [].

Rome is an important centre for music, and it has an intense musical scene, including several prestigious music conservatories and theatres.

It hosts the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia founded in , for which new concert halls have been built in the new Parco della Musica , one of the largest musical venues in the world.

Rome also has an opera house, the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma , as well as several minor musical institutions. Rome has also had a major impact in music history.

The Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music, which were active in the city during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras.

The term also refers to the music they produced. Many of the composers had a direct connection to the Vatican and the papal chapel , though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more progressive.

By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina , whose name has been associated for four hundred years with smooth, clear, polyphonic perfection.

However, there were other composers working in Rome, and in a variety of styles and forms. Rome today is one of the most important tourist destinations of the world, due to the incalculable immensity of its archaeological and artistic treasures, as well as for the charm of its unique traditions, the beauty of its panoramic views, and the majesty of its magnificent "villas" parks.

Among the most significant resources are the many museums — Musei Capitolini, the Vatican Museums and the Galleria Borghese and others dedicated to modern and contemporary art — aqueducts , fountains , churches, palaces , historical buildings, the monuments and ruins of the Roman Forum , and the Catacombs.

Rome is a major archaeological hub, and one of the world's main centres of archaeological research.

There are numerous cultural and research institutes located in the city, such as the American Academy in Rome , [] and The Swedish Institute at Rome.

The Colosseum , arguably one of Rome's most iconic archaeological sites, is regarded as a wonder of the world. Rome contains a vast and impressive collection of art, sculpture, fountains , mosaics , frescos , and paintings, from all different periods.

Rome first became a major artistic centre during ancient Rome, with forms of important Roman art such as architecture , painting, sculpture and mosaic work.

Metal-work , coin die and gem engraving, ivory carvings , figurine glass, pottery , and book illustrations are considered to be 'minor' forms of Roman artwork.

Rome became one of Europe's major centres of Renaissance artwork, second only to Florence , and able to compare to other major cities and cultural centres, such as Paris and Venice.

The city was affected greatly by the baroque , and Rome became the home of numerous artists and architects, such as Bernini , Caravaggio , Carracci , Borromini and Cortona.

Rome hosted a great number of neoclassical and rococo artists, such as Pannini and Bernardo Bellotto. Today, the city is a major artistic centre, with numerous art institutes [] and museums.

Rome has a growing stock of contemporary and modern art and architecture. Maxxi [] features a campus dedicated to culture, experimental research laboratories, international exchange and study and research.

Rome is also widely recognised as a world fashion capital. Although not as important as Milan, Rome is the fourth most important centre for fashion in the world, according to the Global Language Monitor after Milan , New York, and Paris, and beating London.

Rome's cuisine has evolved through centuries and periods of social, cultural, and political changes. Rome became a major gastronomical centre during the ancient Age.

Ancient Roman cuisine was highly influenced by Ancient Greek culture, and after, the empire's enormous expansion exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques.

Later, during the Renaissance , Rome became well known as a centre of high-cuisine, since some of the best chefs of the time worked for the popes.

An example of this was Bartolomeo Scappi , who was a chef working for Pius IV in the Vatican kitchen, and he acquired fame in when his cookbook Opera dell'arte del cucinare was published.

In the book he lists approximately recipes of the Renaissance cuisine and describes cooking techniques and tools, giving the first known picture of a fork.

Examples of Roman dishes include " Saltimbocca alla Romana " — a veal cutlet, Roman-style; topped with raw ham and sage and simmered with white wine and butter; " Carciofi alla romana " — artichokes Roman-style; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; " Carciofi alla giudia " — artichokes fried in olive oil, typical of Roman Jewish cooking; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; " Spaghetti alla carbonara " — spaghetti with bacon , eggs and pecorino , and " Gnocchi di semolino alla romana " — semolina dumpling, Roman-style, to name but a few.

Although associated today only with Latin, ancient Rome was in fact multilingual. In highest antiquity, Sabine tribes shared the area of what is today Rome with Latin tribes.

The Sabine language was one of the Italic group of ancient Italian languages, along with Etruscan, which would have been the main language of the last three kings who ruled the city till the founding of the Republic in BC.

Urganilla, or Plautia Urgulanilla , wife of Emperor Claudius, is thought to have been a speaker of Etruscan many centuries after this date, according to Suetonius' entry on Claudius.

However Latin, in various evolving forms, was the main language of classical Rome, but as the city had immigrants, slaves, residents, ambassadors from many parts of the world it was also multilingual.

Many educated Romans also spoke Greek, and there was a large Greek, Syriac and Jewish population in parts of Rome from well before the Empire.

Latin evolved during the Middle Ages into a new language, the " volgare ". The latter emerged as the confluence of various regional dialects, among which the Tuscan dialect predominated, but the population of Rome also developed its own dialect, the Romanesco.

The Romanesco spoken during the Middle Ages was more like a southern Italian dialect, very close to the Neapolitan language in Campania.

The influence of the Florentine culture during the renaissance , and above all, the immigration to Rome of many Florentines following the two Medici Popes Leo X and Clement VII , caused a major shift in the dialect, which began to resemble more the Tuscan varieties.

This remained largely confined to Rome until the 19th century, but then expanded to other zones of Lazio Civitavecchia , Latina and others , from the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to the rising population of Rome and to improving transportation systems.

As a consequence of education and media like radio and television, Romanesco became more similar to standard Italian. Dialectal literature in the traditional form of Romanesco includes the works of such authors as Giuseppe Gioachino Belli one of the most important Italian poets altogether , Trilussa and Cesare Pascarella.

It is worth remembering though that Romanesco was a " lingua vernacola " vernacular language , meaning that for centuries, it did not have a written form but it was only spoken by the population.

Rome's historic contribution to language in a worldwide sense is much more extensive however. Through the process of Romanization , the peoples of Italy, Gallia , the Iberian Peninsula and Dacia developed languages which derive directly from Latin and were adopted in large areas of the world, all through cultural influence, colonisation and migration.

Moreover, also modern English, because of the Norman Conquest , borrowed a large percentage of its vocabulary from the Latin language. The Roman or Latin alphabet is the most widely used writing system in the world used by the greatest number of languages.

Rome has long hosted artistic communities, foreign resident communities and many foreign religious students or pilgrims and so has always been a multilingual city.

Today because of mass tourism, many languages are used in servicing tourism, especially English which is widely known in tourist areas, and the city hosts large numbers of immigrants and so has many multilingual immigrant areas.

Association football is the most popular sport in Rome, as in the rest of the country. The latter took place in the Stadio Olimpico , which is also the shared home stadium for local Serie A clubs S.

Lazio , founded in , and A. Roma , founded in , whose rivalry in the Derby della Capitale has become a staple of Roman sports culture.

Roma , and Alessandro Nesta for S. Rome hosted the Summer Olympics , with great success, using many ancient sites such as the Villa Borghese and the Thermae of Caracalla as venues.

For the Olympic Games many new facilities were built, notably the new large Olympic Stadium which was then enlarged and renewed to host several matches and the final of the FIFA World Cup , the Stadio Flaminio , the Villaggio Olimpico Olympic Village, created to host the athletes and redeveloped after the games as a residential district , ecc.

Rome made a bid to host the Summer Olympics but it was withdrawn before the deadline for applicant files. Further, Rome hosted the EuroBasket and is home to the internationally recognised basketball team Virtus Roma.

Rugby union is gaining wider acceptance. Until the Stadio Flaminio was the home stadium for the Italy national rugby union team , which has been playing in the Six Nations Championship since The team now plays home games at the Stadio Olimpico because the Stadio Flaminio needs works of renovation in order to improve both its capacity and safety.

Rome is home to local rugby union teams such as Rugby Roma founded in and winner of five Italian championships, the latter in — , Unione Rugby Capitolina and S.

Lazio rugby union branch of the multisport club S. Cycling was popular in the post-World War II period, although its popularity has faded.

Rome has hosted the final portion of the Giro d'Italia three times, in , , and Rome is also home to other sports teams, including volleyball M. Roma Volley , handball or waterpolo.

Rome is at the centre of the radial network of roads that roughly follow the lines of the ancient Roman roads which began at the Capitoline Hill and connected Rome with its empire.

Due to its location in the centre of the Italian peninsula, Rome is the principal railway node for central Italy.

Rome's main railway station, Termini , is one of the largest railway stations in Europe and the most heavily used in Italy, with around thousand travellers passing through every day.

The second-largest station in the city, Roma Tiburtina , has been redeveloped as a high-speed rail terminus. Rome is served by three airports.

The intercontinental Leonardo da Vinci International Airport , Italy's chief airport, is located within the nearby Fiumicino , south-west of Rome.

The older Rome Ciampino Airport is a joint civilian and military airport. It is commonly referred to as "Ciampino Airport", as it is located beside Ciampino , south-east of Rome.

Although the city has its own quarter on the Mediterranean Sea Lido di Ostia , this has only a marina and a small channel-harbour for fishing boats.

The main harbour which serves Rome is Port of Civitavecchia , located about 62 kilometres 39 miles northwest of the city. The city suffers from traffic problems largely due to this radial street pattern, making it difficult for Romans to move easily from the vicinity of one of the radial roads to another without going into the historic centre or using the ring-road.

These problems are not helped by the limited size of Rome's metro system when compared to other cities of similar size.

In addition, Rome has only 21 taxis for every 10, inhabitants, far below other major European cities.

More recently, heavy night-time traffic in Trastevere , Testaccio and San Lorenzo has led to the creation of night-time ZTLs in those districts.

A 3-line metro system called the Metropolitana operates in Rome. Construction on the first branch started in the s.

The event never took place because of war, but the area was later partly redesigned and renamed EUR Esposizione Universale di Roma: Rome Universal Exhibition in the s to serve as a modern business district.

The line was finally opened in , and it is now the south part of the B Line. The A line opened in from Ottaviano to Anagnina stations, later extended in stages — to Battistini.

In the s, an extension of the B line was opened from Termini to Rebibbia. This underground network is generally reliable although it may become very congested at peak times and during events, especially the A line as it is relatively short.

The A and B lines intersect at Roma Termini station. B1 connects to line B at Piazza Bologna and has four stations over a distance of 3. It will partly replace the existing Termini -Pantano rail line.

It will feature full automated, driverless trains. A fourth line, D line, is also planned. The first section was projected to open in and the final sections before , but due to the city's financial crisis the project has been put on hold.

Above-ground public transport in Rome is made up of a bus, tram and urban train network FR lines.

The bus, tram, metro and urban railways network is run by Atac S. Among the global cities , Rome is unique in having two sovereign entities located entirely within its city limits, the Holy See, represented by the Vatican City State, and the territorially smaller Sovereign Military Order of Malta.

The Vatican is an enclave of the Italian capital city and a sovereign possession of the Holy See , which is the Diocese of Rome and the supreme government of the Roman Catholic Church.

Rome therefore hosts foreign embassies to the Italian government, to the Holy See, to the Order of Malta and to certain international organisations.

It is sometimes classified as having sovereignty but does not claim any territory in Rome or anywhere else, hence leading to dispute over its actual sovereign status.

Rome has traditionally been involved in the process of European political integration. The Treaties of the EU are located in Palazzo della Farnesina , seat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs , because the Italian government is the depositary of the treaties.

In the city hosted the signing of the Treaty of Rome , which established the European Economic Community predecessor to the European Union , and also played host to the official signing of the proposed European Constitution in July Rome is since 22 June exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with Paris, France.

Rome's other partner cities are: [ citation needed ]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the capital and largest city in Italy.

For other uses, see Rome disambiguation and Roma disambiguation. Capital of Italy. Capital city and comune in Italy. Capital city and comune.

Clockwise from top: the Colosseum , St. Coat of arms. The white area in the centre is Vatican City. Main articles: History of Rome and Timeline of the city of Rome.

Historical affiliations. Latins Italic tribe c. Main article: Founding of Rome. Julius Caesar. Main article: Roman Renaissance. Main article: Climate of Rome.

Main article: Demographics of Italy. Main article: Religion in Rome. Religion in Rome , Percentage [] [] [] [] [] [] Catholicism.

Main article: Vatican City. See also: List of tourist attractions in Rome and List of streets in Rome. Main articles: Architecture of Rome and Churches of Rome.

Main articles: List of ancient monuments in Rome and Ancient Roman architecture. See also: Fascist architecture. Main article: List of parks and gardens in Rome.

Main articles: List of fountains in Rome and List of aqueducts in the city of Rome. See also: Talking statues of Rome. Main article: List of obelisks in Rome.

Main article: List of bridges in Rome. Main article: Catacombs of Rome. Main article: Culture in Rome.

Main articles: Music of Rome and Events in Rome. Main article: Tourism in Rome. Main article: Roman cuisine. Main articles: List of films set in Rome and List of films set in ancient Rome.

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Roman dialect and Latin.

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Italy portal. Comune di Roma. Archived PDF from the original on 4 May Retrieved 4 May January Retrieved 27 September The population, nearly evenly split along gender lines, consisted of women with a median age of 54 and men with a median age of The estimated population in was Jerome has a mayor—council government.

The five seats on the council are filled by public election once every two years, and the council member receiving the most votes in that election becomes the mayor.

Yavapai County typically elects Republicans to state and federal offices. The town is patrolled by its own police department [76] and is also served by the Eastern Area Command of the Yavapai County Sheriff's Office.

Firefighting, emergency medical service, and wilderness rescues are its specialties. In , Jerome was the third municipality in Arizona to recognize civil unions between same-sex partners, after Bisbee and Tucson.

Jerome's economy is centered mainly on recreation and tourism. Children from Jerome in kindergarten through eighth grade attend the Clarkdale—Jerome School in Clarkdale.

The society plans to rehabilitate the jail, which has become a popular tourist attraction. The project, including improvements to a sliding parking area nearby, is expected to be completed later in Jerome manages its own water system, [91] sourced by ten mountain springs.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Town in Arizona, United States. It began at the east entrance to the 2. Some burned or collapsed.

Some were moved intact or in pieces to places as far away as Flagstaff. Not every standing building has been completely restored, and ruins are still visible in "Mexican Town", downhill from the main business district.

Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. February 8, Retrieved October 7, Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau.

Retrieved June 30, Census website". Retrieved April 19, May 24, Retrieved May 27, Look Up a Zipcode. United States Post Office.

Retrieved May 4, Archived from the original on August 22, Retrieved Yarmouth, ME: DeLorme. Retrieved October 23, Arizona Department of Commerce.

Archived from the original on May 16, Retrieved June 4, Duke Geological Laboratory. Archived PDF from the original on February 3, United State Geological Survey.

May 3, Archived from the original on February 12, Retrieved May 16, Arizona Geological Survey. Archived from the original on April 20, Retrieved May 29, Town of Jerome.

Archived from the original on April 10, The Seguin Gazette-Enterprise. September 8, Retrieved May 15, — via Newspapers. The Avalon Project.

Archived from the original on November 20, Retrieved May 15, The Arizona Bureau of Mines. Archived PDF from the original on February 9, Retrieved April 21, American Geological Institute.

Archived from the original on April 12, Retrieved October 8, Geological Survey Archived PDF from the original on April 10, Popular Science.

Retrieved October 17, — via Google Books. Autumn Arizona and the West. Journal of the Southwest. Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved April 20, Maximum highs and lows are included in the table labeled "Temperature" under the heading "General Climate Summary Tables" in the left-hand column.

Arizona State Parks. Archived from the original on March 19, Retrieved January 15, Verde Independent. Archived from the original on May 5, Retrieved April 18, Retrieved October 10, National Public Radio.

Archived from the original on December 24, The Daily Courier. November 9, Archived from the original on November 10, Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission.

Retrieved May 9, Arizona State Legislature. Civic Impulse. Retrieved January 4, Archived from the original on November 18, Retrieved May 8, Yavapai County.

Retrieved May 6, Yavapai County Government. Archived from the original on March 22, Retrieved October 25, Retrieved July 27, Arizona Commerce Authority.

Retrieved June 6, Jerome Historical Society. Gulch Radio Playlist.

Erome Le Chardonneret. Lass dich von Palawan girls besten Freizeittipps Lois griffin cartoon porn Region für dein nächstes Abenteuer inspirieren. Schöne Aussicht. Passerelle Marc Seguin Fahrrad-Highlight. English spoken. Aufladestation Free ilustrated sex stories Elektro-Autos. Pausenzeiten mit einbeziehen Beta. InJerome was the third municipality in Arizona to recognize civil unions between same-sex partners, after Bisbee and Tucson. Most of these statues are ancient Roman or classical, and most of them also depict mythical gods, ancient people or legendary figures; il Pasquino represents MenelausAbbot Luigi is an unknown Roman magistrate, il Babuino is supposed to be SilenusChloe ayling nude represents Oceanus Maci may porn, Madama Lucrezia is a bust of Isis Kesha ortega and sheila ortega, and il Facchino is the Chat con mujeres gratis Erome statue, created inand not representing anyone in particular. Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Jerome Arizona. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at Clothespins nipples BC, the site has been Erome for much longer, Short hair blonde porn it one of the oldest continuously occupied cities in Europe. Population declined toby andby AD perhaps larger, though no certain figure can be known. Mairie de Paris. Sincethe city has been divided into administrative areas, called municipi sing. Retrieved June 6, Rome's other partner cities Mistress sophie twilight [ citation needed ]. Laziofounded inand A.

The War of the League of Cognac caused the first plunder of the city in more than five hundred years since the previous sack ; in , the Landsknechts of Emperor Charles V sacked the city , bringing an abrupt end to the golden age of the Renaissance in Rome.

Beginning with the Council of Trent in , the Church began the Counter-Reformation in response to the Reformation, a large-scale questioning of the Church's authority on spiritual matters and governmental affairs.

This loss of confidence led to major shifts of power away from the Church. This was another nepotistic age; the new aristocratic families Barberini , Pamphili , Chigi , Rospigliosi , Altieri , Odescalchi were protected by their respective popes, who built huge baroque buildings for their relatives.

There were setbacks in the attempts to assert the Church's power, a notable example being in when Pope Clement XIV was forced by secular powers to have the Jesuit order suppressed.

The rule of the Popes was interrupted by the short-lived Roman Republic — , which was built under the influence of the French Revolution. After the fall of Napoleon, the Papal States were reconstituted by a decision of the Congress of Vienna of In , a second Roman Republic was proclaimed during a year of revolutions in Two of the most influential figures of the Italian unification , Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi , fought for the short-lived republic.

Rome then became the focus of hopes of Italian reunification after the rest of Italy was united as the Kingdom of Italy in with the temporary capital in Florence.

That year Rome was declared capital of Italy even though it was still under the Pope's control. French troops were stationed in the region under Papal control.

Italian troops were able to capture Rome entering the city through a breach near Porta Pia. Pope Pius IX declared himself a prisoner in the Vatican.

In the capital of Italy was moved from Florence to Rome. A significant portion lived outside the walls in the north and across the Tiber in the Vatican area.

He did away with democracy by , eventually declaring a new Italian Empire and allying Italy with Nazi Germany in Mussolini demolished fairly large parts of the city center in order to build wide avenues and squares which were supposed to celebrate the fascist regime and the resurgence and glorification of classical Rome.

During World War II, due to the art treasuries and the presence of the Vatican, Rome largely escaped the tragic destiny of other European cities.

However, on 19 July the San Lorenzo district was bombed by Anglo-American forces , resulting in about 3, immediate deaths and 11, wounded of whom another 1, died.

Mussolini was arrested on 25 July. On the date of the Italian Armistice 8 September the city was occupied by the Germans. The Pope declared Rome an open city.

It was liberated on 4 June Rome developed greatly after the war as part of the " Italian economic miracle " of post-war reconstruction and modernisation in the s and early s.

The rising trend in population growth continued until the mids, when the comune had more than 2. After this, the population declined slowly as people began to move to nearby suburbs.

The EUR initial designation E 42 is a residential and business area southwest of the city center. The region was originally selected in the s as the venue of the World Fair, which Benito Mussolini planned to open to celebrate 20 years of fascism.

The EUR was also designed to direct the expansion of the city to the southwest and the sea and to become a new urban centre in Rome. The final design was presented in but due to the Second World War the exhibition never happened and the works stopped in After the war, the unfinished facilities of the EUR were severely damaged.

However, the authorities of Rome decided that the EUR could be the start of an urban business centre, and the unfinished buildings from the fascist era were completed in the s and s.

Newer buildings were also built for the use of offices and governmental services, amid large gardens and parks. Rome constitutes a comune speciale , named "Roma Capitale" , [66] and is the largest both in terms of land area and population among the 8, comuni of Italy.

It is governed by a mayor and a city council. The seat of the comune is the Palazzo Senatorio on the Capitoline Hill , the historic seat of the city government.

The local administration in Rome is commonly referred to as "Campidoglio" , the Italian name of the hill. Since , the city has been divided into administrative areas, called municipi sing.

Each municipio is governed by a president and a council of twenty-five members who are elected by its residents every five years.

The municipi frequently cross the boundaries of the traditional, non-administrative divisions of the city. The municipi were originally 20, then 19, [68] and in , their number was reduced to Rome is also divided into differing types of non-administrative units.

The historic centre is divided into 22 rioni , all of which are located within the Aurelian Walls except Prati and Borgo. These originate from the 14 regions of Augustan Rome , which evolved in the Middle Ages into the medieval rioni.

A new subdivision of the city under Napoleon was ephemeral, and there were no serious changes in the organisation of the city until , when Rome became the third capital of Italy.

The needs of the new capital led to an explosion both in the urbanisation and in the population within and outside the Aurelian walls.

In , a fifteenth rione, Esquilino , was created on the newly urbanised zone of Monti. Afterward, for the new administrative subdivisions of the city, the term "quartiere" was used.

Today all the rioni are part of the first Municipio, which therefore coincides completely with the historical city Centro Storico.

Rome is the principal town of the Metropolitan City of Rome , operative since 1 January The Metropolitan City replaced the old provincia di Roma , which included the city's metropolitan area and extends further north until Civitavecchia.

The Metropolitan City of Rome is the largest by area in Italy. Moreover, the city is also the capital of the Lazio region. Rome is the national capital of Italy and is the seat of the Italian Government.

The official residences of the President of the Italian Republic and the Italian Prime Minister , the seats of both houses of the Italian Parliament and that of the Italian Constitutional Court are located in the historic centre.

The state ministries are spread out around the city; these include the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is located in Palazzo della Farnesina near the Olympic stadium.

The original settlement developed on hills that faced onto a ford beside the Tiber Island , the only natural ford of the river in this area. Modern Rome is also crossed by another river, the Aniene , which flows into the Tiber north of the historic centre.

Throughout the history of Rome, the urban limits of the city were considered to be the area within the city's walls. Originally, these consisted of the Servian Wall , which was built twelve years after the Gaulish sack of the city in BC.

This contained most of the Esquiline and Caelian hills, as well as the whole of the other five.

Rome outgrew the Servian Wall, but no more walls were constructed until almost years later, when, in AD, Emperor Aurelian began building the Aurelian Walls.

The comune covers an area roughly three times the total area within the Raccordo and is comparable in area to the entire metropolitan cities of Milan and Naples , and to an area six times the size of the territory of these cities.

It also includes considerable areas of abandoned marsh land which is suitable neither for agriculture nor for urban development. As a consequence, the density of the comune is not that high, its territory being divided between highly urbanised areas and areas designated as parks, nature reserves , and for agricultural use.

Rome has a Mediterranean climate Köppen climate classification : Csa , [73] with hot, dry summers and mild, humid winters.

In the coldest month, January, the average temperature is In the warmest month, August, the average temperature is Snowfall is rare but not unheard of, with light snow or flurries occurring on some winters, generally without accumulation, and major snowfalls on a very rare occurrence the most recent ones were in , and Sea temperatures vary from a low of Other sources suggest the population was just under , from — BC.

The republic included the city itself and the immediate surroundings. Other sources suggest a population of , in BC.

It surpassed , in BC. The size of the city at the time of the Emperor Augustus is a matter of speculation, with estimates based on grain distribution, grain imports, aqueduct capacity, city limits, population density, census reports, and assumptions about the number of unreported women, children and slaves providing a very wide range.

Glenn Storey estimates , people, Whitney Oates estimates 1. Jones estimated the population at , in the mid-fifth century.

The damage caused by the sackings may have been overestimated. The population had already started to decline from the late fourth century onward, although around the middle of the fifth century it seems that Rome continued to be the most populous city of the two parts of the Empire.

After the Gothic Wars, —, the population may have dwindled temporarily to 30, During the pontificate of Pope Gregory I — , it may have reached 90,, augmented by refugees.

This has been used to suggest a population of just under , Supplies of grain remained steady until the seizure of the remaining provinces of North Africa in by the Vandals , and may have continued to some degree afterwards for a while.

The city's population declined to less than 50, people in the Dark Ages from AD onward. It continued to stagnate or shrink until the Renaissance.

When the Kingdom of Italy annexed Rome in , the city had a population of about , Less than half the city within the walls was built up in when the population recorded was , This increased to , by the eve of World War I.

The Fascist regime of Mussolini tried to block an excessive demographic rise of the city, but failed to prevent it from reaching one million people by the early s.

A construction boom also created many suburbs during the s and s. In mid, there were 2,, residents in the city proper, while some 4. Minors children ages 18 and younger totalled This compares with the Italian average of The average age of a Roman resident is 43 compared to the Italian average of In the five years between and , the population of Rome grew by 6.

The urban area of Rome extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 3. About half of the immigrant population consists of those of various other European origins chiefly Romanian, Polish, Ukrainian, and Albanian numbering a combined total of , or 4.

The remaining 4. The Esquilino rione , off Termini Railway Station , has evolved into a largely immigrant neighbourhood. It is perceived as Rome's Chinatown.

Immigrants from more than a hundred different countries reside there. A commercial district, Esquilino contains restaurants featuring many kinds of international cuisine.

There are wholesale clothes shops. Of the 1, or so commercial premises operating in the district are Chinese-owned; around are run by immigrants from other countries around the world; are owned by Italians.

Much like the rest of Italy, Rome is predominantly Christian , and the city has been an important centre of religion and pilgrimage for centuries, the base of the ancient Roman religion with the pontifex maximus and later the seat of the Vatican and the pope.

Before the arrival of the Christians in Rome, the Religio Romana literally, the "Roman Religion" was the major religion of the city in classical antiquity.

The first gods held sacred by the Romans were Jupiter , the most high, and Mars , god of war, and father of Rome's twin founders, Romulus and Remus , according to tradition.

Other deities such as Vesta and Minerva were honoured. Rome was also the base of several mystery cults, such as Mithraism.

Peter's Basilica was constructed in AD. Despite some interruptions such as the Avignon papacy , Rome has for centuries been the home of the Roman Catholic Church and the Bishop of Rome , otherwise known as the Pope.

Despite the fact that Rome is home to the Vatican City and St. There are around churches in Rome in total.

There are also the ancient Catacombs of Rome underneath the city. In recent years, there has been growth in Rome's Muslim community, mainly due to immigration from North Africa and the Middle East into the city.

Since the end of the Roman Republic , Rome is also the centre of an important Jewish community, [] which was once based in Trastevere , and later in the Roman Ghetto.

There lies also the major synagogue in Rome, the Tempio Maggiore. Peter's Basilica , the Apostolic Palace , the Sistine Chapel , and museums were built, along with various other buildings.

The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until When the Lateran Treaty of that created the Vatican state was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory were influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop.

For some parts of the border there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part a new wall was constructed.

The territory includes Saint Peter's Square , separated from the territory of Italy only by a white line along the limit of the square, where it borders Piazza Pio XII.

This grand approach was designed by architects Piacentini and Spaccarelli, on the instructions of Benito Mussolini and in accordance with the church, after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty.

According to the Treaty, certain properties of the Holy See located in Italian territory, most notably the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas , enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies.

Rome has been a major Christian pilgrimage site since the Middle Ages. People from all over the Christian world visit Vatican City, within the city of Rome, the seat of the papacy.

The city became a major pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages. Apart from brief periods as an independent city during the Middle Ages , Rome kept its status as papal capital and holy city for centuries, even when the Papacy briefly relocated to Avignon — Catholics believe that the Vatican is the last resting place of St.

Pilgrimages to Rome can involve visits to many sites, both within Vatican City and in Italian territory. A popular stopping point is the Pilate's stairs : these are, according to the Christian tradition, the steps that led up to the praetorium of Pontius Pilate in Jerusalem , which Jesus Christ stood on during his Passion on his way to trial.

For centuries, the Scala Santa has attracted Christian pilgrims who wished to honour the Passion of Jesus.

Other objects of pilgrimage include several catacombs built in imperial times, in which Christians prayed, buried their dead and performed worship during periods of persecution, and various national churches among them San Luigi dei francesi and Santa Maria dell'Anima , or churches associated with individual religious orders, such as the Jesuit Churches of Jesus and Sant'Ignazio.

Traditionally, pilgrims in Rome as well as devout Romans visit the seven pilgrim churches Italian : Le sette chiese in 24 hours.

This custom, mandatory for each pilgrim in the Middle Ages, was codified in the 16th century by Saint Philip Neri. Rome's architecture over the centuries has greatly developed, especially from the Classical and Imperial Roman styles to modern fascist architecture.

Rome was for a period one of the world's main epicentres of classical architecture , developing new forms such as the arch , the dome and the vault.

Originally capable of seating 60, spectators, it was used for gladiatorial combat. The medieval popular quarters of the city, situated mainly around the Capitol, were largely demolished between the end of the 19th century and the fascist period, but many notable buildings still remain.

Basilicas dating from Christian antiquity include Saint Mary Major and Saint Paul outside the Walls the latter largely rebuilt in the 19th century , both housing precious fourth century AD mosaics.

Notable later medieval mosaics and frescoes can be also found in the churches of Santa Maria in Trastevere , Santi Quattro Coronati , and Santa Prassede.

Secular buildings include a number of towers, the largest being the Torre delle Milizie and the Torre dei Conti , both next to the Roman Forum, and the huge outdoor stairway leading up to the basilica of Santa Maria in Aracoeli.

Rome was a major world centre of the Renaissance , second only to Florence, and was profoundly affected by the movement. Among others, a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture in Rome is the Piazza del Campidoglio by Michelangelo.

Many of the famous city's squares — some huge, majestic and often adorned with obelisks , some small and picturesque — took their present shape during the Renaissance and Baroque periods.

Other notable 17th-century baroque palaces are the Palazzo Madama , now the seat of the Italian Senate , and the Palazzo Montecitorio , now the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy.

In , Rome became the capital city of the new Kingdom of Italy. During this time, neoclassicism , a building style influenced by the architecture of antiquity , became the predominant influence in Roman architecture.

During this period, many great palaces in neoclassical styles were built to host ministries, embassies, and other government agencies. The Fascist regime that ruled in Italy between and had its showcase in Rome.

Mussolini ordered the construction of new roads and piazzas, resulting in the destruction of older roads, houses, churches and palaces erected during papal rule.

Architecturally, Italian Fascism favoured the most modern movements, such as Rationalism. Parallel to this, in the s another style emerged, named "Stile Novecento", characterised by its links with ancient Roman architecture.

This new quarter emerged as a compromise between Rationalist and Novecento architects, the former being led by Giuseppe Pagano.

The EUR was originally conceived for the world exhibition , and was called "E. The world exhibition never took place, because Italy entered the Second World War in , and the buildings were partly destroyed in in fighting between the Italian and German armies and later abandoned.

Also, the Palazzo della Farnesina , the current seat of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs , was designed in in pure Fascist style.

Public parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the city has one of the largest areas of green space among European capitals. While most of the parks surrounding the villas were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, some of them remain.

Villa Doria Pamphili is west of the Gianicolo hill, comprising some 1. The Villa Sciarra is on the hill, with playgrounds for children and shaded walking areas.

The old Roman hippodrome Circus Maximus is another large green space: it has few trees, but is overlooked by the Palatine and the Rose Garden 'roseto comunale'.

Nearby is the lush Villa Celimontana , close to the gardens surrounding the Baths of Caracalla. The Villa Borghese garden is the best known large green space in Rome, with famous art galleries among its shaded walks.

There is also a notable pine wood at Castelfusano , near Ostia. Rome also has a number of regional parks of much more recent origin, including the Pineto Regional Park and the Appian Way Regional Park.

There are also nature reserves at Marcigliana and at Tenuta di Castelporziano. Rome is a city famous for its numerous fountains, built in all different styles, from Classical and Medieval, to Baroque and Neoclassical.

The city has had fountains for more than two thousand years, and they have provided drinking water and decorated the piazzas of Rome.

During the Roman Empire , in 98 AD, according to Sextus Julius Frontinus , the Roman consul who was named curator aquarum or guardian of the water of the city, Rome had nine aqueducts which fed 39 monumental fountains and public basins, not counting the water supplied to the Imperial household, baths, and owners of private villas.

Each of the major fountains was connected to two different aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service.

During the 17th and 18th century, the Roman popes reconstructed other ruined Roman aqueducts and built new display fountains to mark their termini, launching the golden age of the Roman fountain.

The fountains of Rome, like the paintings of Rubens , were expressions of the new style of Baroque art. They were crowded with allegorical figures, and filled with emotion and movement.

In these fountains, sculpture became the principal element, and the water was used simply to animate and decorate the sculptures. They, like baroque gardens, were "a visual representation of confidence and power".

Rome is well known for its statues but, in particular, the talking statues of Rome. These are usually ancient statues which have become popular soapboxes for political and social discussion, and places for people to often satirically voice their opinions.

There are two main talking statues: the Pasquino and the Marforio , yet there are four other noted ones: il Babuino , Madama Lucrezia , il Facchino and Abbot Luigi.

Most of these statues are ancient Roman or classical, and most of them also depict mythical gods, ancient people or legendary figures; il Pasquino represents Menelaus , Abbot Luigi is an unknown Roman magistrate, il Babuino is supposed to be Silenus , Marforio represents Oceanus , Madama Lucrezia is a bust of Isis , and il Facchino is the only non-Roman statue, created in , and not representing anyone in particular.

They are often, due to their status, covered with placards or graffiti expressing political ideas and points of view. Other statues in the city, which are not related to the talking statues, include those of the Ponte Sant'Angelo, or several monuments scattered across the city, such as that to Giordano Bruno in the Campo de'Fiori.

The city hosts eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks , together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also formerly until an ancient Ethiopian obelisk in Rome.

Moreover, the centre of Rome hosts also Trajan 's and Antonine Column , two ancient Roman columns with spiral relief.

The city of Rome contains numerous famous bridges which cross the Tiber. The only bridge to remain unaltered until today from the classical age is Ponte dei Quattro Capi , which connects the Isola Tiberina with the left bank.

Considering Ponte Nomentano , also built during ancient Rome, which crosses the Aniene , currently there are five ancient Roman bridges still remaining in the city.

Most of the city's public bridges were built in Classical or Renaissance style, but also in Baroque, Neoclassical and Modern styles.

Rome has extensive amount of ancient catacombs, or underground burial places under or near the city, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades.

Though most famous for Christian burials, they include pagan and Jewish burials, either in separate catacombs or mixed together. The first large-scale catacombs were excavated from the 2nd century onwards.

Originally they were carved through tuff , a soft volcanic rock , outside the boundaries of the city, because Roman law forbade burial places within city limits.

Currently, maintenance of the catacombs is in the hands of the Papacy which has invested in the Salesians of Don Bosco the supervision of the Catacombs of St.

Callixtus on the outskirts of Rome. As the capital of Italy, Rome hosts all the principal institutions of the nation, including the Presidency of the Republic, the government and its single Ministeri , the Parliament, the main judicial Courts, and the diplomatic representatives of all the countries for the states of Italy and Vatican City.

Many international institutions are located in Rome, notably cultural and scientific ones, such as the American Institute, the British School, the French Academy, the Scandinavian Institutes, and the German Archaeological Institute.

Although the economy of Rome is characterised by the absence of heavy industry and it is largely dominated by services , high-technology companies IT, aerospace, defence, telecommunications , research, construction and commercial activities especially banking , and the huge development of tourism are very dynamic and extremely important to its economy.

Rome's international airport, Fiumicino , is the largest in Italy, and the city hosts the head offices of the vast majority of the major Italian companies, as well as the headquarters of three of the world's largest companies: Enel , Eni , and Telecom Italia.

The city is also a centre for banking and insurance as well as electronics, energy, transport, and aerospace industries. Numerous international companies and agencies headquarters, government ministries, conference centres, sports venues, and museums are located in Rome's principal business districts: the Esposizione Universale Roma EUR ; the Torrino further south from the EUR ; the Magliana ; the Parco de' Medici-Laurentina and the so-called Tiburtina-valley along the ancient Via Tiburtina.

Rome is a nationwide and major international centre for higher education, containing numerous academies, colleges and universities. It boasts a large variety of academies and colleges, and has always been a major worldwide intellectual and educational centre, especially during Ancient Rome and the Renaissance , along with Florence.

Rome has many universities and colleges. Its first university, La Sapienza founded in , is one of the largest in the world, with more than , students attending; in it ranked as Europe's 33rd best university [] and in the Sapienza University of Rome ranked as the 62nd in the world and the top in Italy in its World University Rankings.

There are also many specialist libraries attached to various foreign cultural institutes in Rome, among them that of the American Academy in Rome , the French Academy in Rome and the Bibliotheca Hertziana — Max Planck Institute of Art History , a German library, often noted for excellence in the arts and sciences; [].

Rome is an important centre for music, and it has an intense musical scene, including several prestigious music conservatories and theatres.

It hosts the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia founded in , for which new concert halls have been built in the new Parco della Musica , one of the largest musical venues in the world.

Rome also has an opera house, the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma , as well as several minor musical institutions.

Rome has also had a major impact in music history. The Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music, which were active in the city during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras.

The term also refers to the music they produced. Many of the composers had a direct connection to the Vatican and the papal chapel , though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more progressive.

By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina , whose name has been associated for four hundred years with smooth, clear, polyphonic perfection.

However, there were other composers working in Rome, and in a variety of styles and forms. Rome today is one of the most important tourist destinations of the world, due to the incalculable immensity of its archaeological and artistic treasures, as well as for the charm of its unique traditions, the beauty of its panoramic views, and the majesty of its magnificent "villas" parks.

Among the most significant resources are the many museums — Musei Capitolini, the Vatican Museums and the Galleria Borghese and others dedicated to modern and contemporary art — aqueducts , fountains , churches, palaces , historical buildings, the monuments and ruins of the Roman Forum , and the Catacombs.

Rome is a major archaeological hub, and one of the world's main centres of archaeological research. There are numerous cultural and research institutes located in the city, such as the American Academy in Rome , [] and The Swedish Institute at Rome.

The Colosseum , arguably one of Rome's most iconic archaeological sites, is regarded as a wonder of the world. Rome contains a vast and impressive collection of art, sculpture, fountains , mosaics , frescos , and paintings, from all different periods.

Rome first became a major artistic centre during ancient Rome, with forms of important Roman art such as architecture , painting, sculpture and mosaic work.

Metal-work , coin die and gem engraving, ivory carvings , figurine glass, pottery , and book illustrations are considered to be 'minor' forms of Roman artwork.

Rome became one of Europe's major centres of Renaissance artwork, second only to Florence , and able to compare to other major cities and cultural centres, such as Paris and Venice.

The city was affected greatly by the baroque , and Rome became the home of numerous artists and architects, such as Bernini , Caravaggio , Carracci , Borromini and Cortona.

Rome hosted a great number of neoclassical and rococo artists, such as Pannini and Bernardo Bellotto. Today, the city is a major artistic centre, with numerous art institutes [] and museums.

Rome has a growing stock of contemporary and modern art and architecture. Maxxi [] features a campus dedicated to culture, experimental research laboratories, international exchange and study and research.

Rome is also widely recognised as a world fashion capital. Although not as important as Milan, Rome is the fourth most important centre for fashion in the world, according to the Global Language Monitor after Milan , New York, and Paris, and beating London.

Rome's cuisine has evolved through centuries and periods of social, cultural, and political changes. Rome became a major gastronomical centre during the ancient Age.

Ancient Roman cuisine was highly influenced by Ancient Greek culture, and after, the empire's enormous expansion exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques.

Later, during the Renaissance , Rome became well known as a centre of high-cuisine, since some of the best chefs of the time worked for the popes.

An example of this was Bartolomeo Scappi , who was a chef working for Pius IV in the Vatican kitchen, and he acquired fame in when his cookbook Opera dell'arte del cucinare was published.

In the book he lists approximately recipes of the Renaissance cuisine and describes cooking techniques and tools, giving the first known picture of a fork.

Examples of Roman dishes include " Saltimbocca alla Romana " — a veal cutlet, Roman-style; topped with raw ham and sage and simmered with white wine and butter; " Carciofi alla romana " — artichokes Roman-style; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; " Carciofi alla giudia " — artichokes fried in olive oil, typical of Roman Jewish cooking; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; " Spaghetti alla carbonara " — spaghetti with bacon , eggs and pecorino , and " Gnocchi di semolino alla romana " — semolina dumpling, Roman-style, to name but a few.

Although associated today only with Latin, ancient Rome was in fact multilingual. In highest antiquity, Sabine tribes shared the area of what is today Rome with Latin tribes.

The Sabine language was one of the Italic group of ancient Italian languages, along with Etruscan, which would have been the main language of the last three kings who ruled the city till the founding of the Republic in BC.

Urganilla, or Plautia Urgulanilla , wife of Emperor Claudius, is thought to have been a speaker of Etruscan many centuries after this date, according to Suetonius' entry on Claudius.

However Latin, in various evolving forms, was the main language of classical Rome, but as the city had immigrants, slaves, residents, ambassadors from many parts of the world it was also multilingual.

Many educated Romans also spoke Greek, and there was a large Greek, Syriac and Jewish population in parts of Rome from well before the Empire.

Latin evolved during the Middle Ages into a new language, the " volgare ". The latter emerged as the confluence of various regional dialects, among which the Tuscan dialect predominated, but the population of Rome also developed its own dialect, the Romanesco.

The Romanesco spoken during the Middle Ages was more like a southern Italian dialect, very close to the Neapolitan language in Campania.

The influence of the Florentine culture during the renaissance , and above all, the immigration to Rome of many Florentines following the two Medici Popes Leo X and Clement VII , caused a major shift in the dialect, which began to resemble more the Tuscan varieties.

This remained largely confined to Rome until the 19th century, but then expanded to other zones of Lazio Civitavecchia , Latina and others , from the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to the rising population of Rome and to improving transportation systems.

As a consequence of education and media like radio and television, Romanesco became more similar to standard Italian.

Dialectal literature in the traditional form of Romanesco includes the works of such authors as Giuseppe Gioachino Belli one of the most important Italian poets altogether , Trilussa and Cesare Pascarella.

It is worth remembering though that Romanesco was a " lingua vernacola " vernacular language , meaning that for centuries, it did not have a written form but it was only spoken by the population.

Rome's historic contribution to language in a worldwide sense is much more extensive however. Through the process of Romanization , the peoples of Italy, Gallia , the Iberian Peninsula and Dacia developed languages which derive directly from Latin and were adopted in large areas of the world, all through cultural influence, colonisation and migration.

Moreover, also modern English, because of the Norman Conquest , borrowed a large percentage of its vocabulary from the Latin language. The Roman or Latin alphabet is the most widely used writing system in the world used by the greatest number of languages.

Rome has long hosted artistic communities, foreign resident communities and many foreign religious students or pilgrims and so has always been a multilingual city.

Today because of mass tourism, many languages are used in servicing tourism, especially English which is widely known in tourist areas, and the city hosts large numbers of immigrants and so has many multilingual immigrant areas.

Association football is the most popular sport in Rome, as in the rest of the country. The latter took place in the Stadio Olimpico , which is also the shared home stadium for local Serie A clubs S.

Lazio , founded in , and A. Roma , founded in , whose rivalry in the Derby della Capitale has become a staple of Roman sports culture.

Roma , and Alessandro Nesta for S. Rome hosted the Summer Olympics , with great success, using many ancient sites such as the Villa Borghese and the Thermae of Caracalla as venues.

For the Olympic Games many new facilities were built, notably the new large Olympic Stadium which was then enlarged and renewed to host several matches and the final of the FIFA World Cup , the Stadio Flaminio , the Villaggio Olimpico Olympic Village, created to host the athletes and redeveloped after the games as a residential district , ecc.

Rome made a bid to host the Summer Olympics but it was withdrawn before the deadline for applicant files. Further, Rome hosted the EuroBasket and is home to the internationally recognised basketball team Virtus Roma.

Rugby union is gaining wider acceptance. Until the Stadio Flaminio was the home stadium for the Italy national rugby union team , which has been playing in the Six Nations Championship since The team now plays home games at the Stadio Olimpico because the Stadio Flaminio needs works of renovation in order to improve both its capacity and safety.

Rome is home to local rugby union teams such as Rugby Roma founded in and winner of five Italian championships, the latter in — , Unione Rugby Capitolina and S.

Lazio rugby union branch of the multisport club S. Cycling was popular in the post-World War II period, although its popularity has faded. Rome has hosted the final portion of the Giro d'Italia three times, in , , and Rome is also home to other sports teams, including volleyball M.

Roma Volley , handball or waterpolo. Rome is at the centre of the radial network of roads that roughly follow the lines of the ancient Roman roads which began at the Capitoline Hill and connected Rome with its empire.

Due to its location in the centre of the Italian peninsula, Rome is the principal railway node for central Italy. Rome's main railway station, Termini , is one of the largest railway stations in Europe and the most heavily used in Italy, with around thousand travellers passing through every day.

The second-largest station in the city, Roma Tiburtina , has been redeveloped as a high-speed rail terminus.

Rome is served by three airports. The intercontinental Leonardo da Vinci International Airport , Italy's chief airport, is located within the nearby Fiumicino , south-west of Rome.

The older Rome Ciampino Airport is a joint civilian and military airport. It is commonly referred to as "Ciampino Airport", as it is located beside Ciampino , south-east of Rome.

Although the city has its own quarter on the Mediterranean Sea Lido di Ostia , this has only a marina and a small channel-harbour for fishing boats.

The main harbour which serves Rome is Port of Civitavecchia , located about 62 kilometres 39 miles northwest of the city.

The city suffers from traffic problems largely due to this radial street pattern, making it difficult for Romans to move easily from the vicinity of one of the radial roads to another without going into the historic centre or using the ring-road.

These problems are not helped by the limited size of Rome's metro system when compared to other cities of similar size. In addition, Rome has only 21 taxis for every 10, inhabitants, far below other major European cities.

More recently, heavy night-time traffic in Trastevere , Testaccio and San Lorenzo has led to the creation of night-time ZTLs in those districts.

A 3-line metro system called the Metropolitana operates in Rome. Construction on the first branch started in the s. The event never took place because of war, but the area was later partly redesigned and renamed EUR Esposizione Universale di Roma: Rome Universal Exhibition in the s to serve as a modern business district.

The line was finally opened in , and it is now the south part of the B Line. The A line opened in from Ottaviano to Anagnina stations, later extended in stages — to Battistini.

In the s, an extension of the B line was opened from Termini to Rebibbia. This underground network is generally reliable although it may become very congested at peak times and during events, especially the A line as it is relatively short.

The A and B lines intersect at Roma Termini station. B1 connects to line B at Piazza Bologna and has four stations over a distance of 3. It will partly replace the existing Termini -Pantano rail line.

It will feature full automated, driverless trains. A fourth line, D line, is also planned. The first section was projected to open in and the final sections before , but due to the city's financial crisis the project has been put on hold.

Above-ground public transport in Rome is made up of a bus, tram and urban train network FR lines. The bus, tram, metro and urban railways network is run by Atac S.

Among the global cities , Rome is unique in having two sovereign entities located entirely within its city limits, the Holy See, represented by the Vatican City State, and the territorially smaller Sovereign Military Order of Malta.

The Vatican is an enclave of the Italian capital city and a sovereign possession of the Holy See , which is the Diocese of Rome and the supreme government of the Roman Catholic Church.

Rome therefore hosts foreign embassies to the Italian government, to the Holy See, to the Order of Malta and to certain international organisations.

It is sometimes classified as having sovereignty but does not claim any territory in Rome or anywhere else, hence leading to dispute over its actual sovereign status.

Rome has traditionally been involved in the process of European political integration. The Treaties of the EU are located in Palazzo della Farnesina , seat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs , because the Italian government is the depositary of the treaties.

In the city hosted the signing of the Treaty of Rome , which established the European Economic Community predecessor to the European Union , and also played host to the official signing of the proposed European Constitution in July Rome is since 22 June exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with Paris, France.

Rome's other partner cities are: [ citation needed ]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the capital and largest city in Italy.

For other uses, see Rome disambiguation and Roma disambiguation. Capital of Italy. Capital city and comune in Italy.

Capital city and comune. Clockwise from top: the Colosseum , St. Coat of arms. The white area in the centre is Vatican City. Main articles: History of Rome and Timeline of the city of Rome.

Historical affiliations. Latins Italic tribe c. Main article: Founding of Rome. Julius Caesar. Main article: Roman Renaissance.

Main article: Climate of Rome. Main article: Demographics of Italy. Main article: Religion in Rome. Religion in Rome , Percentage [] [] [] [] [] [] Catholicism.

Main article: Vatican City. See also: List of tourist attractions in Rome and List of streets in Rome. Main articles: Architecture of Rome and Churches of Rome.

Main articles: List of ancient monuments in Rome and Ancient Roman architecture. See also: Fascist architecture.

Main article: List of parks and gardens in Rome. Main articles: List of fountains in Rome and List of aqueducts in the city of Rome. See also: Talking statues of Rome.

Main article: List of obelisks in Rome. Main article: List of bridges in Rome. Main article: Catacombs of Rome.

Main article: Culture in Rome. Main articles: Music of Rome and Events in Rome. Main article: Tourism in Rome. Main article: Roman cuisine. Main articles: List of films set in Rome and List of films set in ancient Rome.

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Italy portal. Comune di Roma. Archived PDF from the original on 4 May Retrieved 4 May January Retrieved 27 September Presidenza della Repubblica.

Archived from the original on 21 September Retrieved 17 May La Repubblica. Archived from the original on 2 March Princeton University Press.

Archived from the original on 12 June El Futuro del Pasado. Archived from the original PDF on 23 September Retrieved 28 May Topografia e urbanistica di Roma in Italian.

Rome: Istituto di Studi Romani. Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. Archived from the original on 24 March Archived from the original on 7 March Archived from the original on 24 February Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 20 May The history of Rome.

George Baker trans. Printed for A. Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 9 March Jaan Puhvel: Comparative mythology.

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Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. See Treaty of Tordesillas and Inter caetera. Archived from the original on 10 January Retrieved 3 February The small adjacent mining camp on Cleopatra Hill was named Jerome in honor of Eugene Jerome, who became the company secretary.

Four years later, William A. Clark , who had made a fortune in mining and commercial ventures in Montana , bought the United Verde properties and, among other improvements, enlarged the smelter.

By then the United Verde Mine had become the leading copper producer in the Arizona Territory, employing about men, [22] and was one of the largest mines in the world.

Jerome had a post office by It added a schoolhouse in and a public library in After four major fires between and destroyed much of the business district and half of the community's homes, Jerome was incorporated as a town in By , Jerome had churches, fraternal organizations, and a downtown with brick buildings, telephone service, and electric lights.

Jerome, which was legally separate from United Verde and supported many independent businesses, did not meet the definition of a company town [33] even though it depended for decades largely on a single company.

Douglas, Jr. Removing the overburden and pouring a mixture of water, waste ore, and sand into rock fissures helped control the fires.

The labor situation in Jerome was complicated. In , two miners' strikes involving the IWW, which had been organizing strikes elsewhere in Arizona and other states, took place in Jerome.

Seen as a threat by business interests as well as other labor unions, the Wobblies, as they were called, were subject nationally to sometimes violent harassment.

In response, the IWW members threatened to break the strike. Under pressure, the MMSW voted to to settle for less than they wanted.

In July, the IWW called for a strike against all the mines in the district. In this case, the MMSW voted to against striking. Three days later, about armed vigilantes rounded up at least 60 suspected IWW members, loaded them onto a railroad cattle car , and shipped them out of town in what has been called the Jerome Deportation.

Nine IWW members, thought by the Prescott sheriff's department to be leaders, were arrested and jailed temporarily in Prescott though never charged with a crime; others were taken to Needles, California , then to Kingman, Arizona , where they were released after promising to desist from "further agitation".

Following a brief post-war downturn, boom times returned to Jerome in the s. Copper prices rose to 24 cents a pound in , [46] and United Verde and UVX operated at near capacity.

Both companies donated to the Jerome Public Library and helped finance projects for the town's schools, churches, and hospitals.

Meanwhile, a subsidence problem that had irreparably damaged at least 10 downtown buildings by worsened through the s.

Dozens of buildings, including the post office and jail, were lost as the earth beneath them sank away.

Mining continued at a reduced level in the Verde District until , when Phelps Dodge shut down the United Verde Mine and related operations.

Jerome's population subsequently fell below They organized the Jerome Historical Society in and opened a museum and gift shop. To encourage tourism, the town's leaders sought National Historic Landmark status for Jerome; it was granted by the federal government in Although most precipitation arrives in the town as rain, snow and fog sometimes occur.

According to the Köppen climate classification , Jerome has a Mediterranean climate Csa. The makeup of early Jerome differed greatly from the 21st-century version of the town.

The original mining claims were filed by North American ranchers and prospectors, but as the mines were developed, workers of varied ethnic groups and nationalities arrived.

Among these were people of Irish, Chinese, Italian, and Slavic origin who came to Jerome in the late 19th century. The ratio of females to males also varied greatly over time in Jerome.

As of the census of , Jerome was home to people comprising households, 93 of which were families made up of a householder and one or more people related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption.

The other were non-family. The population, nearly evenly split along gender lines, consisted of women with a median age of 54 and men with a median age of The estimated population in was Jerome has a mayor—council government.

The five seats on the council are filled by public election once every two years, and the council member receiving the most votes in that election becomes the mayor.

Yavapai County typically elects Republicans to state and federal offices. The town is patrolled by its own police department [76] and is also served by the Eastern Area Command of the Yavapai County Sheriff's Office.

Firefighting, emergency medical service, and wilderness rescues are its specialties. In , Jerome was the third municipality in Arizona to recognize civil unions between same-sex partners, after Bisbee and Tucson.

Jerome's economy is centered mainly on recreation and tourism. Children from Jerome in kindergarten through eighth grade attend the Clarkdale—Jerome School in Clarkdale.

The society plans to rehabilitate the jail, which has become a popular tourist attraction. The project, including improvements to a sliding parking area nearby, is expected to be completed later in Jerome manages its own water system, [91] sourced by ten mountain springs.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Town in Arizona, United States. It began at the east entrance to the 2. Some burned or collapsed.

Some were moved intact or in pieces to places as far away as Flagstaff. Not every standing building has been completely restored, and ruins are still visible in "Mexican Town", downhill from the main business district.

Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. February 8, Retrieved October 7, Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau.

Retrieved June 30, Census website". Retrieved April 19, May 24, Retrieved May 27, Look Up a Zipcode. United States Post Office.

Retrieved May 4, Archived from the original on August 22, Retrieved Yarmouth, ME: DeLorme. Retrieved October 23, Arizona Department of Commerce.

Archived from the original on May 16, Retrieved June 4, Duke Geological Laboratory. Archived PDF from the original on February 3, United State Geological Survey.

May 3, Archived from the original on February 12, Retrieved May 16, Arizona Geological Survey. Archived from the original on April 20, Retrieved May 29, Town of Jerome.

Archived from the original on April 10, The Seguin Gazette-Enterprise. September 8, Retrieved May 15, — via Newspapers.

The Avalon Project. Archived from the original on November 20, Retrieved May 15, The Arizona Bureau of Mines. Archived PDF from the original on February 9, Retrieved April 21, American Geological Institute.

Archived from the original on April 12, Retrieved October 8, Geological Survey Archived PDF from the original on April 10,

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